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Singapore transgender culture

Page history last edited by PBworks 17 years, 9 months ago

The history and [subculture] surrounding 'Transgender people in Singapore' is substantial. Not immediately apparent to Singapore's mainstream society is the fact that the [gay] community sees itself as a totally separate entity from the [transgender] communities (often also referred to as "[transvestite] and [transexual]" communities). They are individual subcultures with many different priorities and concerns.


(For words in Singapore's four official and other minority languages used to describe transvestites, transgender people and transsexuals, see [Singapore gay terminology])


==Malay [Mak Nyah]==

[[Image:MakNyahBookCover.JPGleftThe front cover of "The Mak Nyahs: Malaysian Male to Female Transsexuals" by Malaysian sociologist Teh Yik Koon.]]


A large body of information on the Malay] transgender, transvestite and transsexual communities has been amassed by female [sociologist] [Teh Yik Koon] from the [School of Social Development], [University Utara Malaysia]. It is detailed in her groundbreaking and seminal work, "[The Mak Nyahs: Malaysian Male to Female Transsexuals]" (Singapore: [Eastern Universities Press], 2002, viii + 175pp., ISBN 9812102094). Many of the findings are also applicable to local [mak nyah]s as Singaporean and Malaysian Malays largely share a common culture. (Read a tabloid article about a contemporary [Mak Nyah] stage performer:[http://newpaper.asia1.com.sg/show/story/0,4136,92080,00.html?]


There is far less information available on [transmen], that is female-to-male [transgender] people, as they are much less visible. It should also be noted that not all [transwomen] casually solicit sex or prostitute themselves, although it is sometimes the only paid work available to them.



Transvestites and transsexuals generally cruise and congregate in different areas from non-[cross-dressing] gay men. They seek heterosexual men with whom they socialise, have free sex or perform sexual services for a fee. They also bond socially with each other at these venues.



====[Bugis Street]====

One of Singapore's most famous tourist meccas since the 1950s, renowned internationally for its nightly parade of flamboyantly-dressed [transwomen], Bugis Street attracted hordes of Caucasian] gawkers who had never witnessed Asian queens in full regalia.


[[Image:TranswomanBugisStreet.JPGleftTranswoman sashaying down Bugis Street, being ogled at by tourists, circa the 1960s]]


The latter would tease, cajole and sit on visitors' laps or pose for photographs for a fee. The amount of revenue that they raked in was considerable, providing a booster shot in the arm for the tourism industry.

Veterans recall that the notorious drinking section began from [Victoria Street] west to [Queen Street]. Halfway between Victoria and Queen Streets, there was an intersecting lane parallel to the main roads, also lined with al fresco bars. There was a well-patronised public toilet with a flat roof of which there are archival photos, complete with jubilant rooftop transwomen.

The earliest published description of Bugis Street found by [Yawning Bread] as a place of great gender diversity was in the book "Eastern Windows" by Ommaney, F.D. (1960. London:Longmans. pp. 39-45). Ommaney did not date specifically his description of the street but his book made clear that he was in Singapore from 1955 to 1960. Read a first-person account of Bugis Street in the 1950s by Bob, a visiting Australian sailor:[http://www.yawningbread.org/guest_2002/guw-078.htm]


In the mid-1980s, Bugis Street underwent major urban redevelopment into a retail complex of modern shopping malls, restaurants and nightspots mixed with regulated back-alley roadside vendors. Underground digging to construct the [Bugis MRT station] prior to that also caused the upheaval and termination of nightly transgender sex bazaar culture, marking the end of a colourful and unique era in Singapore's history. Tourist and local lamentation of the loss sparked attempts by the Singapore Tourist Promotion Board (STPB) to attempt to recreate some of the old sleazy splendour by staging contrived "Ah Qua shows" on wooden platforms, but these artificial performances fell flat on their faces and failed to pull in the crowds. They were abandoned after a short time. (For more information, see the article [Bugis Street].)


Bugis Street was immortalised in an English-language film made, ironically, by a [Hong Kong] film company which did employ some local talent in its production. (See Singapore gay films.)


====[Johore Road]====

Formerly located between and parallel to [Queen Street] and Victoria Street], and bisected by [Ophir Road], it was the less well-known cousin of its glamourous counterpart, [Bugis Street], just a stone's throw away. It was the seedy haunt of transgender prostitutes who solicited sex from locals, away from the glare of Western tourists. No photographs or media attention were focussed on this street of ill-repute; only a no-frills approach to an economic exchange.


[[Image:JohoreRoad001.JPG230pxThe former location of Johore Road to the north-east of Ophir Road, now transected by the Victoria Street Wholesale Centre.]]

[[Image:JohoreRoad002.JPG230pxThe carpark behind the Victoria Street Wholesale centre, also where Johore Road used to be.]]

[[Image:JohoreRoad003.JPG230pxThe unnamed park next to the Bugis MRT station where the half of Johore Road south-west of Ophir Road used to be.]]


It was one of the few roads to be completely erased from the map of Singapore after a fire in the late 90s, to be replaced by an unnamed park next to the Bugis MRT station and the [Victoria Street Wholesale Centre].


====[Boom Boom Room]====

Singapore's only [drag queen] [cabaret] [nightclub] and thought by many also to be Singapore's only real national institution in the same uninhibited spirit as the original [Bugis Street]. It is the namesake of [John Lee Hooker]'s legendary [blues] club in [San Francisco], shooting to international fame when the [postmodernist] magazine [Wallpaper] called it "our top pick for a good night out in all of [Asia]!"


Originally established by owner [Alan Koh] in 1993 at 4 [New Bugis Street] in [Bugis Village], it later relocated on 2 April 2000 to the second floor of the old 2-storey [Chui Eng Free School] schoolhouse at 130-132 [Amoy Street], [Far East Square] (10 min walk from the [Raffles Place MRT station]). The new venue, which was reputed to have the best [Singapore Sling] in town, had a restaurant downstairs for informal and outdoor dining.


[[Image:BoomBoomRoomSpore005.jpg230pxThe capacity crowd at a performance.]]

[[Image:BoomBoomRoomSpore006.jpg230pxKumar in a traditional dance number.]]


Its overwhelming attraction were the risqué [comedy] routines by local drag] superstar [Kumar] who took no-holds-barred digs at topics close to the hearts of Singaporeans. He was aided by his coterie of flamboyant, dazzlingly costumed, cross-dressing backups, nubile toyboys and other straight stand-up comedian/comedienne friends.


[[Image:BoomBoomRoomSpore007.jpg230pxKumar giving a stern warning.]]


The first performance debuted on 18 Aug 2000. There were 2 shows each night and outrageous wisecracks, in raw [Singlish] which made the banter difficult for tourists to understand, were interspersed with [DJ]s playing the latest chart tunes. Members of the audience sitting next to the stage ran the highest risk of being drawn into the performance.


It was patronised by a largely [heterosexual] audience who danced wildly during the intervals, but Tuesday nights were [gay] with access granted to password holders only.


It closed after 12 years on 15 Jan 2005 to enable its artistes to move on to fresh creative pursuits. However, many thought other reasons were that the shows were getting stale, the [drag queen]s were getting old ([Kumar] was 36) with no fresh blood to carry the torch and the existing ones not having what it took, and the club's poor location. It spawned a spoof] version called the [Bang Bang Room] at [Changi Village] which held late night performances every weekend.



====[Desker Road] vicinity====

A well-known area for men seeking the services of real woman prostitutes in the [Serangoon] or Little India] area for decades, it attracted many of the transgender street-walkers from nearby [Johore Road] after the latter was erased from the map by a fire in the late 1990s.


[[Image:DeskerRoad001.JPG230pxDesker Road by day, viewed from Serangoon Road.]]


Unlike their [genotypic]ally-female government-regulated counterparts who are on display, usually seated on armchairs or sofas in well-lit rooms, reminiscent of a low-class back-lane version of [Amsterdam], the [transwomen] of [Desker Road], in contrast, cruise while standing or strolling. This is done to render their activities, which are considered illegal, less vulnerable to [Vice Squad] raids. The seedy atmosphere of the whole vicinity has largely disappeared due to massive redevelopment around [Mustafa Centre].


====[Changi Village]====

Popular with [transwomen] since the early 1990s and the straight men who go there to ogle at them, chat them up or use their services.


====[Woodlands Town Garden]====

A "heartland" park smack in the middle of a [Housing Development Board] satellite town which has recently gained notoriety for the activities of transvestites, some of whom reportedly rather aggressively solicit paid sex from casual passers-by. (Read a report by [The New Paper]:[http://newpaper.asia1.com.sg/news/story/0,4136,88288,00.html])


====[Gold Dust]====

Located on level 2 of the rear block of [Orchard Towers] along [Orchard Road], it is Singapore's second [drag queen] [cabaret] nightclub, a joint venture between [Kumar], 37, and partner [Gwen Koh], 45, who also owns the [3 Monkeys Restaurant] in [Orchard Towers]. Together, they spent $50,000 to open the venue in July 2005, 6 months after the closure of [Boom Boom Room].


Aiming for the high-end market, Gold Dust boasts professional dancers with flamboyant [mardi gras]-type costumes, and real women dancing alongside drag performers. Kumar's trademark provocative jokes are still the main focus, but now framed in a classier and more streamlined show. He aims to capture the cozy feel and stylish look of [New York]-style [theatre bars]. Thus, the 3,000 sq ft club has no dance floor and all the chairs and tables face the stage. It can hold 180 people, and has the feel of a 1970s glam [disco], updated for the new generation. Instead of young National Servicemen and students, who formed a significant part of the [Boom Boom Room] client?le, Gold Dust intends to target a slightly more upper-crust crowd.


The main aim of the [theatre bar] is to showcase talent. In addition to the cabaret dances and stand-up comedy staples, it is considering expanding the shows to include [mime], monologues, plays and singing.


Partner [Kumar] decided to open the venture because he needed a steady income stream, as well as a home base for his stand-up performances. Although the bar is located in the back block of [Orchard Towers] where [Harry's Bar] and [Jason's supermarket] reside, some felt that the idea of a bar next to the infamous '4 floors of whores' may not appeal to some patrons. However, Kumar felt that [Orchard Towers] was always known to be a controversial place, and since he was also a controversial performer who pushed the boundaries, it made sense for the bar to be based there.'


For the first time, [Kumar]'s show incorporates 2 female professional dancers, [Samantha Kan], 24, and [Aslinda], 23. There were only male dancers at the [Boom Boom Room]. He always felt that the latter was lacking something and now he realised that it was girls.


Opening hours are from 8pm to 3am on weekdays, and from 8pm to 4am on weekends. Entrance charges, inclusive of 1 drink are $22 on weekdays and $28 on weekends. Only patrons 25 years and above are allowed. Dress code is smart casual- no shorts, singlets or slippers. Website:[http://www.thegolddustclub.com/]



===National Service===

[National service] was implemented in 1967, whereby all 18-year old males were required to train full-time for two or two-and-a-half years, depending on their educational attainment. [Transgender] was listed as a condition in a [Singapore Armed Forces] ([SAF]) 'Directory of Diseases' and recruits who outed themselves to the examining doctors at the [Central Manpower Base] ([CMPB]) at [Dempsey Road] had their 'deployability' denied in sensitive positions. They were classified as snigger-worthy [Category 302] personnel, downgraded to a [Public Employment Status] of 3 (PES3) and assigned only clerical work at army bases.


===Early [Sex Reassignment Surgery]===

As [Singaporean] gynaecological surgeons became more skillful, leaders in the field like Prof. S [Shan Ratnam] were authorised to perform [Sex reassignment surgery male-to-female] (SRS) at [Kandang Kerbau Hospital]. The first such operation in [Asia] took place here in July 1971. However, before patients could go under the knife, they first had to subject themselves to an exhaustive battery of tests and be given a clean psychological bill of health by chief academic [psychiatrist] Prof. [Tsoi Wing Foo].


===Legal Reform===

In 1973, Singapore legalized [sex-reassignment surgery]. A policy was instituted to enable post-operative [transsexual] people to change the legal gender on their identity cards (but not their birth certificates) and other documents which flowed from that. There was no specific provision in the statutes which allowed the Registrar to do this, so it existed probably only at the level of a policy directive. However, for over 20 years, this policy seemed to have operated smoothly.


===Further Developments in Sex Reassignment Institutions===

Later, the more technically-demanding [sex reassignment surgery female-to-male] was also offered at [Kandang Kerbau Hospital] and at [Alexandra Hospital], performed by gynaecologists such as Dr. Ilancheran. A [Gender Identity Clinic] ([GIC]) and [Gender Reassignment Surgery Clinic] were set up at the [National University Hospital] two decades later. It was headed by Prof. S [Shan Ratnam] until his retirement in 1995, after which leadership passed to his nephew, Dr. Anandakumar. In fact, for 30 years, [Singapore] was one of the world leaders in SRS, performing more than 500 such operations. This gave a new lease of life to the many [transgender] individuals whose bodies did not match their [gender identity]. As one consequence of this, [Bugis Street] and [Johore Road] started to become populated with a range of [transgender] people from [transvestite]s to [iatrogenic] [intersex] individuals to fully transformed women.


In the 1970s, a well-known [transsexual] model was occasionally featured in [Her World magazine].


===Legalization of Transgender Marriage===

Since the mid-1970s, post-operative [transsexual] people had been discreetly lobbying to be given the right to get married to opposite-sex spouses. In 1996, a bill was presented before [Parliament] and the [Women's Charter] amended to read:

*Avoidance of marriages between persons of same sex. 12.

(1) A marriage solemnized in Singapore or elsewhere between persons who, at the date of the marriage, are not respectively male and female shall be void. [30/96]

(2) It is hereby declared that, subject to sections 5, 9, 10, 11 and 22, a marriage solemnized in Singapore or elsewhere between a person who has undergone a sex re-assignment procedure and any person of the opposite sex is and shall be deemed always to have been a valid marriage. [30/96]

**(3) For the purpose of this section

***(a) the sex of any party to a marriage as stated at the time of the marriage in his or her identity card issued under the National Registration Act (Cap. 201) shall be [prima facie] evidence of the sex of the party; and

***(b) a person who has undergone a sex re-assignment procedure shall be identified as being of the sex to which the person has been re-assigned. [30/96]

**(4) Nothing in subsection (2) shall validate any such marriage which had been declared by the High Court] before 1st May 1997 to be null and void on the ground that the parties were of the same sex.


The minister moving the bill argued that since 1973, the government's intention was for people who had changed gender/sex to live a life according to their new gender, including the right to marry. Through an oversight, the law relating to marriage had not been re-aligned with the official policy to recognise sex reassignment surgery. Now that the courts had illuminated this inconsistency after a landmark case in which a wife sought and won the annulment of her marriage to a [transman] (Lim Ying v Hiok Kian Ming Eric), it was necessary to amend the [Women's Charter] to ensure that the original intention was not undermined. Transgender people were officially granted their wish on 24 January 1996 via an announcement by MP] [Abdullah Tarmugi] without much public fanfare or opposition.


===Closure and Reopening of the [GIC]===

The [Gender Identity Clinic] ([GIC])at the [National University Hospital] quietly closed in 2001. The official explanation was that the gynaecologist in charge had left for private practice, and without him, the clinic did not have the skills to perform SRS. However, as early as 1987, the [Ministry of Health] had been directing hospitals to stop doing such operations on foreigners. It also discouraged them for Singaporeans, saying 'the increased danger of [AIDS] with such patients poses unnecessary risk to hospital staff'.


This dismayed transgender people seeking to have their operations performed locally. The online edition of the now-defunct newspaper [Project Eyeball] carried out a survey in June 2001 asking, "Should [sex-change] operations be resumed in Singapore?" 39% of respondents said, "Yes, they are people with valid medical needs, like infertile couples" and 35% said, "Why not? It is legal here, as are [transsexual] marriages". The results showed that Singaporeans were generally quite supportive.


The transgender community petitioned for the [GIC] to be reopened and were successful, with the clinic discreetly resuming it services in 2003, helmed by [[Dr. Ilancheran]]. However, owing to the discrimination against transgender people in Singapore even within some segments of the medical community, the high financial outlay involved and the necessity for psychological clearance, many preferred to have their operations performed sans the hassles in [Bangkok], which had by then become the première centre for SRS.




*[Leona Lo] [http://www.leonalo.com/Templates/My_Services.htm][http://www.fridae.com/newsfeatures/article.php?articleid=924&viewarticle=1]





*[Amy Tashiana] [http://fridae.com/newsfeatures/article.php?articleid=1377&viewarticle=1]



===Cross-dressing artistes===


*[Ivan Heng]







===Heterosexual part-time cross-dressing artistes===

*[Jack Neo]









*[Sisterhood] by [Leona Lo] (Select Books, 2003, ISBN: 981047198X)- a personalised emotional exposé of the local [transvestite] and [transsexual] community by an intellectual [transwoman] herself.

*[My Sisters: Their Stories] by [Leona Lo] and [Lance Lee] ([Viscom Editions Pte Ltd])

*[Cries from Within] by S. [Shan Ratnam]; Victor H. H. Goh and Tsoi Wing Foo- a tome on sex-reassignment surgery and its attendant psychological considerations by two eminent gynaecologists and a psychiatrist.


==See also==

*[List of transgender-related topics]


==External links and references==

*[Yawning Bread]'s account of Singapore's [transgender] and sex-change history:[http://www.yawningbread.org/arch_2005/yax-457.htm]

*Transgender Asia

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